Injectable regenerative treatments are the gold standard of non-surgical anti-ageing. Scientists all around the globe search for methods and technologies that allow us to modify cell activity towards tissue regeneration and anti-ageing. This ongoing research has already produced impressive results with new data, new technologies and new methods emerging every day.

Especially since 2021, our everyday medical practice has been offered numerous injectables that manage to achieve impressive results in skin regeneration, collagen production and inhibition of age-induced tissue degradation.

The 3 cutting-edge anti-ageing injectable treatments are as follows:

  1. Stem Cells
  2. Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), also know as Fibrin Rich Plasma.
  3. Injectable Biomimetic agents

Stem Cells

Even from the early stages of research, stem cells had shown their tremendous potential in tissue regeneration, granting them the prestigious title of the “Holly Grail” of anti-ageing! Studies have shown that the presence of stem cells in the target areas induces tissue regeneration, tissue repair and inhibition of degradation caused by ageing. Consequently, new methods, techniques, devices and medical protocols have been introduced in our everyday clinical practice and allowed us to more efficiently harvest, store, process and finally inject stem cells to the target tissue.

The main source of stem cells for regenerative treatments is patient’s own fat tissue (adipose tissue). The Adipose-Delivered-Stem Cells (ADSCs) are multipotend cells and their characteristics are similar to the high potency stem cells delivered from bone marrow (Bone Marrow-delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells – BM-MSCs). ADSCs are therefore cells with high efficacy to differentiate, able to survive for a longer period of time and with a higher proliferative capacity than other stem cells.

Dr Pagkalos harvests fat tissue using ultrasound assisted liposuction. ADSCs are subsequently extracted from fat, striped of tissue debris and processed for insertion to the target tissue, such as the face, neck, cleavage and hands.

ADSCs achieve tissue regeneration through:

(a) Multipotent cell differentiation.

(b) Paracrine activity: ADSCs secret pro-angiogenic factors and anti-apoptotic factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, mRNAs and microRNAs.


(c) Immunosuppressive characteristics: ADSCs secrete factors such as IL-6 and TGF-B and also suppress lymphocyte proliferation.

ADSCs manage to achieve repair of tissue damage accumulated with age and to improve skin elasticity and skin quality. ADSC treatment give patients a youthful, fresh and healthy skin in a grade that could not be achieved with any other treatment before.

Latest trends in Stem Cells therapies

Although ADSCs treatments give very impressive results, there are some restrictions associated with their use in everyday clinical practice. Harvesting fat tissue from patient’s own body means that we can not repeat the treatment as many times as one would probably need. Furthermore, liposuction, although usually minimal, has a recovery period which may last up to one month and a possible morbidity to the donor site. Last but not least, the number of ADSCs extracted may not be sufficient and there is nothing the plastic surgeon can do about it.

The good news are that immunosuppressive properties of ADSCs have nowadays opened the path to xenotransplantation: the use of stems cells from donors!

Liposuction clinics provide labs with large amounts of fat tissue for ADSCs extraction. Using a standardised, multistep process, ADSCs leave the labs in the form of a fine powder, ready to be used as an high potency biostimulative solution for injection to the skin.

Although, ADSCs produced through the above process have lost the ability to differentiate to skin cells, they are fully functional when it comes to paracrine activity and immunosuppression, allowing the onset of a cascade of biological events that ultimately lead to inhibition of cell apoptosis, tissue repair and cell regeneration.

Furthermore, bypassing the need for fat tissue harvesting from patient’s own body, allows for the treatment to be repeated as many times needed and with higher ADSCs concentrations than conventional methods. Clinical data have shown that this new Stem Cells treatment produces impressive results with the ease of use of a regular mesotherapy. The future of anti-aging is now!

Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), also know as Fibrin Rich Plasma (FRP)

PRF/FRP plays an important role in regenerative medicine. Fibrin is a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines that are slowly released to the injection site and considered to be key factors for tissue regeneration.

PRF/FRP is the successful outcome of a long journey of research, focused on the development of natural therapeutic alternatives that achieve anti-ageing and tissue regeneration using our own body’s natural resources.

PRF/FRP is an autologous platelet concentrate prepared from patient’s own blood at Dr Pagkalos’ clinic just before the injection to the skin. PRF/FRP is a natural fibrin-based biomaterial prepared without anticoagulants or artificial additives (biomedical modifiers) that allows us to obtain autologous fibrin membranes with high concentration of platelets and white cells, releasing growth factors to the skin for seven to 14 days. Studies have shown that the presence of growth factors and cytokines in platelets play a key role in inflammation and wound healing. Platelets also secrete fibrin, fibronectin and vitronectin, which act as a matrix for connective tissue and as adhesion molecules for more efficient cell migration. The above lead to impressive regenerating and anti-ageing results and hair growth stimulation. PRF/FRP is also embraced by other medical specialties such as orthopaedic and heart-surgery showing significant clinical results.

Although PRF/FRP and PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) have some similarities, PRF/FRP produces far more superior results and receives greater patient satisfaction, while at the same time being safer and more natural than PRP.

Advantages of PRF/FRP compared with PRP:

  • No anticoagulants that affect the release of growth factors.
  • No drugs (calcium chloride) that could affect fibrin polymerisation.
  • No animal products (Bovine thrombin) that could affect the coagulation process and cause immune system activation.
  • PRF has a natural fibrin network which protects growth factors from proteolysis.
  • PRF favours the development of micro-vascularization which leads to a more efficient cell migration.
  • PRF has monocytes, leukocytes and other white cells that play an important role during the inflammatory phase of healing

Nucleotides , peptides and injectable collagen

Biomimetic agents are molecules that modulate cell function when injected to the skin. Dr Pagkalos uses a combination of biomimetic peptides and nucleotides to address each patient’s individual needs. For example, we can make cells restrain water and keep skin highly hydrated, produce more collagen and promote production of connective tissue that tightens the jaw lines, thighs or, most commonly, the neck.

 Biomimetic peptides and nucleotides are often combined with agents that enhance blood microcirculation, bringing more oxygen and nutrients to skin cells or combined with injectable collagen which, in turn, offers fibroblasts a rich source of “building material”, ready to use for connective tissue formation.

 Biomimetic agents have been highly evolved over the last years, establishing their role as a leader in skin rejuvenation.

Through hard work and dedication, years of research and clinical studies, Dr Pagkalos has managed to gather the best injectable therapies for face and body available worldwide.